Woman Shall Rise

Woman Shall Rise

Woman shall rise.

Dalip Singh Wasan, Advocate.

It is on record hat woman is physically weak and that had been the reason she has been left behind and this man had been trying to walk ahead all alone. The man on this earth could not achieve what he could have achieved, had he taken the woman with him throughout in history. God had created this woman for him to give this man a complete companion, but somehow this man could not understand this woman and that had been the reason, he had been trying to keep this woman as his slave. She had been left un-educated, untrained and she was not allowed to work and earn. She had been put at work in the house where no wages had been fixed for her and she had been considered as a dependant upon the man who was earning money for the running of the house. The man never assessed the work which had been allotted to her share in the house. The man had been getting his breakfast, his lunch, his dinner, sex, children, service, clean clothes, clean house, service when the man was ill and look after the children and the man never realized that all these duties require energy, time and devotion and if this woman is not at the house, he would not be able to maintain this house which is functioning for him as his home. The man never realized that this home had been established only because he could get a woman and had this marriage system not been established, this man would have got no home and he would have been running after women and would have been establishing prostitution homes, institutions of call girls, institution of keeps and there could have been chances that this man would have been indulging in rape cases and there could have been chances that most of the men could have been in jails.

Time has come when this woman has started realizing her worth and she is getting proper education, proper training and she is getting adjustment at work and most of the women are entering work-field and now when they are earning shoulder to shoulder with this man, they have started realizing that they are not slaves but this man cannot live without them. The woman is on the rise and if this process continues, they shall be turning this man as their slaves. The parents are trying to see that their daughters are also on their own feet before their marriage, because they are not happy with the plight of their daughters in the houses of their in laws. Therefore, they are preparing their daughters in such a way that they shall be able to face all the situations and there are chances that the people in the house of their in laws shall be behaving properly or they shall not be getting girls for their sons. The man on this earth is realizing that if this woman decides to remain un-married, what shall be the position of this man on this earth. He would not get a house which could be converted into a home. He shall live life of single man and that shall establish this earth into a Hell for him.

Woman of tomorrow shall be acting like man and there are chances that this round earth may turn in their favour and shall give them a chance to rule over the man. The future shall be in the hands of women and therefore, the men must prepare themselves for these challenges. He should start accommodating this woman and must give her a right place and if fails, he shall suffer. The man must realize that this woman is more powerful and once she gets the throne, this man shall not be able to live like a slave. His position shall be worse because this woman shall start taking revenge from this man who had been keeping her slave since centuries and had been committing all tyrannies on her. Revenge from the side of woman shall be more serious and grave and this man who had been ruling her for centuries shall be given due punishment. So the man of today should realize his position and must start behaving properly and accommodate his woman in a suitable manner. That shall keep her as his friend and life partner and she would not be taking revenge from the man on this earth.

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Methods To Make Quitting Smoking Easier For You

Methods To Make Quitting Smoking Easier For You

Are there really some easy quit smoking methods out there? In truth, there is no instant method that will make you quit without lifting a finger. A game plan and following a game plan is still required.

There is finally a way to quit smoking, which may not be effortless, but relatively easier. If you talk to other people especially smokers, they may discourage you and say that it’s impossible. But that’s not true. If you really want to kick the habit, you should muster up some determination and really push through a plan of attack. That, plus some helpful advice and guidance from various quitting systems available will help you succeed.

Those who say that it is absolutely impossible for smokers to stop smoking are most likely also the people who are too lazy and settled on the habit to even make an effort to quit. They keep saying to others what they say to themselves, that it is really impossible.

For those smokers out there who are set on quitting, do not let yourself fall into that trap. Most likely, you don’t even remember why you started smoking and that you realize that it is really self-destructive in more ways than one. Quitting is possible and here are methods that will help you along.

A great method is to first think off and list down all the benefits or reasons why quitting should be done. Just as they say: if there is a will there is a way. Listing things would help motivate you and clarify why you need to do it.

Another method for you is to stay in a house that is free from other smokers. Having to live with other smokers is such a challenge because you will be constantly tempted by the smell and by the cigarettes lying around that you can easily get.

You have to be warned that you will experience some withdrawal pains from nicotine. But not to worry, there are lots of nicotine patches and gums out there that will help you get through this problem. That will take care of the biological addiction, but you will still have to deal with the psychological addiction which is the biggest addiction of all.

The gums, patches, and hard candies that contain nicotine for those who want to quit can be found in any store. They contain small amounts of nicotine so that it will help the quitting person to compensate for the sudden lack of this addictive substance as an effect of quitting. The dosage on these things can then be lessened as the days go by. Anti-depressants such as zyban, Chantrix, and other medicine can also be used to help lessen the withdrawal syndrome. If these are still not enough, you should look for other programs about kicking the habit, which many are available online.

Quit Smoking Methods To Make It Easier For You To Kick The Bad Habit, is proudly contributed by Quit Smoking Specialist Who Shares His Free Quit Smoking Guide Online. Following Him On Twitter Today.

Related Quite Articles

Impacts of Food Product Advertisements of Pakistan Television on the Eating Habits of Children

Impacts of Food Product Advertisements of Pakistan Television on the Eating Habits of Children

IMPACTS OF FOOD PRODUCT ADVERTISEMENTS OF PAKISTAN TELEVISION ON THE EATING HABITS OF CHILDREN

By MALIK TARIQ MAHMOOD

INTRODUCTION

Television belongs to the family of audio-visual communication medium. It is able to transmit sounds and images carrying message of a varied nature and for a variety of purpose. It has strong influence on people, in the culture and on other media. It is a widely used telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound over a distance from all around the world. The term may also be used to refer specifically to a television set, programming or television transmission. Television commercials have become one of the most effective, most persuasive, and most popular methods of selling products of many sorts.

Within Pakistani culture we need to look deeper at the role of television and advertisements, to assess why they hold such a valuable position. Pakistan Television is a permanent fixture in children’s lives. The television set is as familiar to children as the faces of family members. Television set is always there, to entertain and to give company to children, especially when no one else in the mood to play, chat or interact with them. They are increasingly being exposed to different cultures, absorbing new ideas and impressions about other cultures.

Many television advertisements are catchy jingles or catch-phrases that generate sustained appeal, which may remain in the minds of television viewers long after the span of the advertising campaign. Nowadays advertising spread in our entire culture influences in society and our fundamental patterns of life. Advertising can be seen as one of the factors that contribute to shape people’s life, their basic values, and attitudes. But actual picture is different, according to Edger “Advertising is the art of making whole lies out of half truth.’1

Advertising has been watched in many ways: on Television, Newspapers, Billboards, Walls, Video, Internet and in many other forms. The protection of children from harm is linked directly to the issue of what affects observed from viewing television. The criticisms regarding watching television of children are linked to what they watch and for how long. Television advertising on food causes parental concern; parents try to control the television viewing of their children. Parental control of television viewing is expected to lower the number of hours of a child, which leaves impacts on their health.1

Today’s children are our future and unique in many ways from previous generation. But perhaps the most influencing factor on children’s health is television advertisements. There are general concerns of parents that television advertising has negative influence intended or unintended on children’s health.

Advertising is the structured and composed nonpersonal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products by identified sponsors through various media. Advertising companies naturally communicate to large number of people about their products. There is nothing wrong with that, as it allows innovative ideas and concepts to be shared with others. However, as the years have progressed, the advertising methods and techniques have become advance, appealing, shaping, and even creating consumer’s needs where there has been none before, or turning luxuries into necessities.2

Mass advertising is no longer solely a means of introducing and distributing products, though it does that. It is a major mechanism in the ability of a relatively small number of giant corporations to hold disproportionate power over the economy. These corporations need newspapers, magazines, and broadcasting not just to sell their goods but to maintain their economic and political influence. The media are no longer neutral agents of the merchants but essential gears in the machinery of corporate gigantism, and increasingly they are not only needed but they are owned by the corporate giants.3

HISTORY OF ADVERTISING

Advertising is as old as civilization itself. The earliest beginnings of advertising, of course, are impossible to pinpoint, but there are several examples dating back thousands of years. In early days, signboards were placed above the doors of business establishments, and later, the town crier was an important advertising medium. Advertising was a well established part of the social environment of early civilizations. However, until the advent of mass selling in the 19th century, advertising played only a minor role in the conducting of business.4

After the invention of printing handbills, posters and then newspapers were used in increasing the quantities of advertise products. The development of railroad transportation enabled advertising industry to send its products to consumers who lived far from the manufacturing plants. Advertising assumed national character as business people used both newspapers and television to broaden their markets.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The advertising of food products of Pakistan Television impact on children’s health – eating disorder and they become obese and idle. The researcher interested to investigate these impacts of food-products advertising on the health of children.

OBJECTIVES

The study was conducted while keeping following objectives in mind:

i) To investigate children’s viewing habits of Pakistan Television

ii) To find out impacts of advertising on children’s health

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Although there are many beneficiaries of the study but the main beneficiaries are parents’, and personnel of advertising agencies. All parents want to provide good food to their children for healthy life. The results of the study will show the parents about impact of advertising on the health of their children and will help them to compensate these affects.

LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter has been divided into five parts. The first part describes some general things about Television advertising. The second part of the chapter is explaining theory of the advertising; how the advertisements affect the health of children and their lives. The third part explains the role of advertising in the society. The fourth part describes the health of children and their BMI. The fifth part of the study explores the negative impacts of ads on the health of children of 8 to 12 years.

Television is an important socialisation agent; it is present in children’s lives. Many advertisements broadcast on television are the creations of brilliant minds that want to persuade them to purchase the advertised products. Evidence are mounting that marketing to children is harmful. Nearly every aspect of children’s lives has been adversely affected by recent trends of advertising. Research links advertising to increased obesity and eating disorders in children because they are vulnerable to persuasive messages. According to Media scholar Gorge “Television has become unavoidable and unremitting factor in shaping that what we are and what we will become.”1

The children under the age of eight are unable to critically comprehend televised advertising messages and are prone to accept advertiser messages as truthful, accurate and unbiased. This can lead to unhealthy eating habits as evidenced by today’s youth. This is a critical concern because the most common products marketed to children are cereals, candies, sweets, sodas and snack foods. Advertising of such unhealthy food products to young children contributes to poor nutritional habits that may last a lifetime and be a variable in the current epidemic of obesity among kids.2

TELEVISION ADVERTISING

A consumer exposed hundreds commercial messages every day. They may appear in the form of billboards, newspapers, television commercials, etc. It is actually a very structured form of applied communication, employing both verbal and nonverbal elements that are composed to fill specific space and time formats determined by the sponsor. First and foremost, advertising is communication – a special kind of communication. Traditionally, advertising has been principally a one-way process, but with today’s new interactive technology, consumers can give feedback to advertising messages in real time using the same channels as the sender. Most advertising is intended to be persuasive – to win converts to a product, service, or idea. Some ads, such as legal announcements, are intended merely to inform, not to persuade. But they are still ads because they satisfy all the other requirements of the definition.3

The issues surrounding advertising directed to children are related to certain commercial campaigns primarily targeting children. Cold-drink advertisements are commonly shown during sports events and seen by millions of children, creating brand familiarity and motivating children for buying. They have been exposed television more than 15 edible ads during one hour programme and when they watch television 4 hours a day that means they saw one product’s ad around 20 times in one sitting. This is referred to graph no. 15 at page 34.

Advertising is persuasive and informational influence on the behaviour of the audience. Advertising is also a marketing tool and may be used in combination with other marketing tools, such as sales promotions, personal selling tactics, or publicity. But the actual picture is different, according to Edger “Advertising is the art of making whole lies out of half truth.”

The impact of television advertising is the greatest among children. The children like television commercials more than elder group, and they are also more deeply influenced by the catchy appearance of advertiser on their lives.

Advertising aimed at children is based on three concerns, first, it is believed that advertising promote superficially and values founded in material goods and consumption. Second, children are considered inexperienced consumers and easy prey for the sophisticated persuasion of advertisers. Third, advertising influences children demand for everything from toy to snack food.4

THE ROLE OF ADVERTISING

Advertising plays a vital role in the economic system of a country. It helps in selling ideas, goods, and services. Advertising both reflects and affects our lifestyles, and thus, plays a substantial social role. Advertising has become so close to our life, therefore, it serves multidimensional communication needs of society. Business firms, labour unions, government agencies, and political leaders are successfully employing advertising to inform and persuade people about their purpose.

Kapoor gives the four points of role of advertising: First, the country’s gross national product is greater and the standard of living is higher than they would otherwise be. Advertising creates jobs with a greater variety of products, and improves the quality of products and increase the economy of country. Second, argument of Kapoor is that advertising plays a major role in informing the consumer so that more intelligent choices are made in the marketplace. Third, rationale for advertising is that the firm’s cost of production per unit of output is lower because advertising increases demand for the firm’s output, so, advertising leads to more efficient use of resources in the economy. Finally, she says that advertising leaves the impacts either positive or negative on the general masses as well as on children. These impacts are changed according to the culture and environment.5

The above mentioned four points are whole picture of advertising that advertisers want to achieve. This same situation can be found in Pakistan. So, no one can able to explore all the aspects of advertising at this level because so many hurdles are there, such as lack of resources, shortage of time.

CHILDREN’S HEALTH

Every parent consciously and keenly observes the health of their children in all society. But parents are more attached with their children in Pakistani society because children are their future and they will help in finances when parents will retire. All parents like to provide good food to their children for their health and give proper education for making them a good citizen. Both parents are working because they want to improve their living standard; this is referred to graph no. 4. Some times parents over looks children’s activities i.e. what and when they eat? When and how they watch television? Why they become obese and idle? 6

Actually the researcher will explore the answer of all these questions because these questions are mainly related with the study.

Health experts have linked excessive watching television to obesity – a significant health problem today. While watching television, children are inactive to buy such products. They are also bombarded with advertising messages that encourage them to buy and eat unhealthy foods such as potato chips, burgers, pastries etc. and empty-calorie soft drinks that often become preferred snack foods. Indirectly advertising leave too much affect on children’s health. Even if children are watching 4 hours of quality educational programs on television in a day, that means they are not exercising, reading, socializing, or spending time outside. But some studies have shown that decreasing the amount of television watching by children led to less weight gain and lower body mass index increase, and make them idle that is not better for their health.7

BODY MASS INDEX (BMI)

Body Mass Index (BMI) is used to estimate healthy weight of average people. A BMI of 20 to 24 is desirable for most adults. A person with a BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight, and a person with a BMI of 30 or above is considered obese. Obesity is associated with an increased risk for heart disease, diabetes, and other life-threatening diseases.

The body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to determine desirable body weights. BMI is a measure of an adult’s weight in relation to height, and it is calculated metrically as weight divided by height squared (kg/m2).

Body mass index only provides a rough estimate of desirable weight; however, physicians recognize that many other factors besides height affect weight. Weight alone may not be an indicator of fat, as in the case of a bodybuilder who may have a high BMI because of a high percentage of muscle tissue, which weighs more than fat. Likewise, a person with a sedentary lifestyle may be within a desirable weight range but have excess fat tissue. However, the higher BMI is greater the risk for developing serious medical conditions.

BMI Chart for Boys

Body Mass Index (BMI) percentiles for boys, from two to twenty years, so that you can track your child’s growth curve and see if they are underweight, overweight or just right.

BMI Chart for Girls

Body Mass Index (BMI) percentiles for girls, from two to twenty years, so that you can track your child’s growth curve and see if they are underweight, overweight or just right.

What is Fat?

Fats, or lipids, are nutrients in food that children’s body uses to build nerve tissue (like the brain) and hormones. The body also uses fat as fuel. If fats that children have eaten are not burned as energy or used as building blocks, they are stored by the body in fat cells. This is body’s way of thinking ahead: By saving fat for future use, the body plans for times when food might be scarce.

Fat gives food flavour and texture, but it’s also high in calories, and excess amounts of fatty foods as with excess amounts of any food can cause many health risks. For children and adolescents, desserts and snacks including potato chips, chocolate, cakes, doughnuts, pastries, and cookies are a significant source of fat. Children also get fat from whole milk products and high-fat meats, such as fried and spicy meat. Of course, fast-food and take-out meals tend to have more fat than home cooking; and in restaurants, fried dishes are the highest in fat content. Fat also often “hides” in foods in the form of creamy, cheesy, or buttery sauces or dressings.

Still, though, fat is an important part of a healthy diet when the children eat the right kinds of fats especially those from certain kinds of fish in recommended amounts. Like carbohydrates in recent years, fats have been wrongly accused of being “bad”. Although some definitely better than others, certain kinds of fat are actually good for teenager and children an important part of a healthy diet.

Obesity increases the risk of developing disease. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, almost 70 percent of heart disease cases in the United States are linked to excess body fat, and obese people are more than twice as likely to develop hypertension. The risk of medical complications, particularly heart disease, increases when body fat is distributed around the waist, especially in the abdomen. This type of upper body fat distribution is more common in men than in women.8

CAUSES OF OBESITY

A calorie is the unit used to measure the energy value of food and the energy used by the body to maintain normal functions. When the calories from food intake equal the calories of energy the body uses, weight remains constant. But when a person consumes more calories than the body needs, the body stores those additional calories as fat, causing subsequent weight gain.

Obesity, medical condition characterized by storage of excess body fat. The human body naturally stores fat tissue under the skin and around organs and joints. Fat is critical for good health because it is a source of energy when the body lacks the energy necessary to sustain life processes, and it provides insulation and protection for internal organs. But the accumulation of too much fat in the body is associated with a variety of health problems. Studies show that individuals who are overweight or obese run a greater risk of developing diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, arthritis, and some forms of cancer.9

The causes of obesity are complex and include some factors. Basically, obesity occurs when a person eats more calories than the body burns up. The children have an 80 percent chance of being obese if their parents are obese. Obesity in childhood and adolescence can be related to:

i) Poor eating habits
ii) Overeating habits
iii) Unnecessary use of Cold drinks
iv) Eating Non-nutrition food
v) Eating out-side the home

The percentage of overweight children is growing at an alarming rate. On the whole, children were spending less time exercising and more time in front of the TV and computer. And today’s busy families have fewer free moments to prepare nutritious, home-cooked meals, day in and day out. From fast food to electronics, quick and easy seems to be the mindset of many people, young and old, in the new millennium.

IMPACTS OF ADVERTISING

Modern life style has frozen the family size in the Pakistani society. Nuclear family has taken place of the joint family. Lifestyle trends in urban Pakistan (rising incomes, longer working hours, more working mothers, and time-poor/cash-rich parents) tend to support their families, which lead the child to watching television and increased consumption of unnecessary food. Furthermore, the advertising industry makes junk food seem irresistible.

Children who watch a lot of television have difficulty in concentrating at school because they are used to being given all the answers instead of being asked to think about questions. If children watch less television, their imagination will grow.

Unfortunately, children are not given proper guidance as to what they should do. The media is not playing its proper role in the promotion of children’s rights and the difficulties they have to face in the society. Even the authorities of Pakistan Television ignored this side and they can not design programs according to children’s requirements.

IMPACTS ON CHILDREN’S HEALTH

James suggests that “Childhood obesity arises from foods that are high in fat and low in fibre. When children eat this food, the insulin not only increases the effects of the pleasure-chemical dopamine (making the child want to eat more of the same food) but also reduces the effects of the hormone leptons, making the child want to eat more and be less active”.10

Television also has negative impacts, it creates eye problems. It stops the children from going out and playing with friends. Its advertising makes them buy things even if they do not need. It can make them tired and unable to focus on their lessons.

LEAVE UNHEALTHY HABITS

Gerbner said that the many media experts in Western countries who continue to be deeply anxious about the commercial context of television programming. They argue that television advertising leave impacts on society, particularly on the health of children, and television advertising is not going on air without reason.11

The impact of television on children has received much attention. Research suggests that children see television advertising as just another form of programming and react uncritically to its messages, which makes them especially vulnerable to advertising. There is also concern about the way in which children respond to advertising. Research indicates that many children are unduly influenced by this standard of health, become dissatisfied with their own bodies, and may develop eating disorders in pursuit of a thin figure. Advertising affect daily life and eating habits etc. The children as well as the teenager get influenced, consciously or unconsciously by advertisements of Pakistan television.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Every scientific discipline employs a particular methodology in conducting of research. This includes some assumptions and values which serve as a rationale (underlying reasons) for effort of research and standards criteria for the whole process. The basic purpose of this research study was investigating the negative impacts of eating habits/disorder on the health of children. For this purpose systematic random sampling method was used. The sample size was limited to 30 children aged between 8 – 12 years and their parents.

RESEARCH DESIGN

This study was survey research about “Impacts of food product advertisements of Pakistan Television on eating habits of Children” in Satellite Town (B-Block) Rawalpindi city. The researcher used questionnaire for parents and interviews of the children as instrument to gather the data.

POPULATION

In this research study children of age 8 – 12, and their parents in Rawalpindi city were the population of the study.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE AND SAMPLE

Random and convenience sampling techniques were applied in this research for selecting the sample. The sampling frame was 30 children aged 8 – 12, and their parents from Satellite Town (B-Block) Rawalpindi city.

DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES

There are three demographic variables in this study:

i) Gender
ii) Age
iii) Qualification

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

In order to realise the objective, a survey study was carried out. The data was collected mainly from the primary sources. A questionnaire was designed for parents. Children’s questionnaire was also used for structured interview.

DATA COLLECTION

Data was collected through questionnaire and interview. Questionnaire were distributed among the parents and administered by the researcher personally. Structured Interview was conducted to all children respondents of sample.

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

In this chapter the researcher analyzed the data of impacts of advertisements on the health of children. The data on the “Impacts of Food Product Advertisements of PTV on the Health of Children were collected through a questionnaire which was especially designed for this study. Primarily, cross-tabulation statistical procedure was applied to investigate relationship between demographic variables i.e. (gender, age, and qualification, and presented in graphs alongwith data tables with interpretation.

As evident form the graph 1, the majority of the male respondents (34% fell in the age category of 30 to 45 as well as female respondents in the same groups made 23%. The results showed that majority of the both groups respondents were youngster.

As evident from the graph 2, the majority of the male respondents (20%) was Doctor whereas 20% were running their business, 10% female respondents were Govt. employee and 10% were housewives.

Graph 3, showed that 57% of male respondents and 30% female respondents were highly qualified. So, male respondents were higher qualified as compared to female.

The graph 4 documents the monthly income of the parents-respondents. As evident from the graph that male respondent belongs to well earning families as compare to female respondents.

As evident from the graph 5 this shows the composition of families of the respondents, the majority of respondents having four members in their family.

As evident from the graph 6 all parent respondents watched PTV regularly.

As evident from the graph 7 that majority (13%) of male-respondents watched PTV in evening and late night as compare to female respondents who liked to watch Pakistan Television in morning and afternoon.

Graph 8 showed that majority of parent watches Pakistan Television for 2 to 3 hours daily.

Graph 9 reflects that all children respondents were regular viewers of Pakistan Television.

The results of the graph 10 shows that children like to watch television in evening mostly but some respondents like to watch in afternoon as well.

As evident from the graph 11, the majority (30%) of children respondents watches PTV for more than four hours daily. According to the data collected children of 8-12 years old were heavy viewers of PTV. Actually that is the problem area because watching television for long time i.e. more than five hours creates adverse effects on the health, especially children of 8-12 years old.

The results of the graph 12 shows that majority (33%) of children respondents like to watch children shows/quiz programmes as guided by their parents.

Graph 13 reflects that parents allow their children to watch PTV for the purpose of getting updated information and for entertainment as well.

Graph 14 is evident that male respondents felt tiredness when they watch PTV for more than 3 to 4 hours but female respondents got bored that means female liked to watch more than four hours.

As evident from the graph 15 that majority of respondents (40%) watched ads around 15-20 and 20% saw more than 25 ads in an hour. Its means that during one hour program a lot of food-products were advertised on PTV which instigated children to buy these products on their own or ask their parents to buy the same for them.

As evident from the graph 16 that majority of both parent and children respondents usually liked to buy cold-drinks but some children responded that they also liked to buy chips type products as well. These products increase fats on the body especially in children because the age 8-12 years is the grooming age and they need proper and nutritionist diet for their health.

As evident from the graph 17 parent respondents, responded that children attitude was changed if they did not buy or allow them to buy such edibles. They behave aggressively with their elders or parents.

The results of the graph 18 show the impacts of Pakistan Television’s ads on children. Parents responded that their children tried to imitate when they saw ads, but some parents responded that they felt some aggressiveness during/after watching ads because advertiser showed super human actions.

As results of the graph 19 shows that parents always buy food products on their children’s demand because they were well earned (refer to graph no. 4). They fulfilled all demands of their children whatever they demanded for eating. This eating habit created eating-disorder in the children of 8-12 years old.

As evident from the graph 20 that parents felt that PTV’s ads effected their children’s diet because their children having enough money to buy belong to upper class families (refer to graph no.4).

As evident of graph 21 that parents responded that these ads increased eating disorder and decreased health of their children.

FINDINGS

The purpose of this research was to find out Impacts of Food Product Advertisements of Pakistan Television on the Eating Habits of Children. The major variables those are likely to have a significant impact of Pakistan Television ads on children’s health.

In Pakistan almost all the children have been watching television regularly. The information about children’s spending time on viewing television was to estimate their exposure to the variety of advertisements. Variation of advertising’s influence has been observed differently in one child to another, and from day to day for the same child. Nevertheless, some general influence of advertising on children were observed, which presented in chapter 4 at graph 9.

According to the graph 11; all the children have been watching television daily. 23% children saw television for up to 3 hours and 30% were watched television up to 4 hours a day. Thus, they were found heavy and regular viewers. Most of the children spend quite a lot of time sitting in front of television screen watching various programmes.

Thus, children of 8 to 10 years old were found to be more attracted towards television ads and they watched them with great interest but with the increasement in the age, children’s preferences shifted towards television programmes.

Most of the children in all age groups watched the television ads with great. That means many audio-visual techniques in television advertising were simply aimed at gaining, and holding children’s attention, which impressed them to purchase various products. Thus, television advertisements could really make a tremendous impact on children. The researcher found out the following aspects:

1) Children of 8-12 years old and their parents were watched Pakistan Television TV regularly. Most of the male parent liked to watch at late night but female parent liked to watch at morning and evening and their children liked to watch at evening. The parents’ watching span was 2-3 hours but their children’s watching span was 4-5 hours daily.

2) Children liked to watch children shows/quiz programmes but their parents allowed them to watch of PTV for getting information and entertainment as well.

3) Male respondents felt tiredness when they watched PTV for more than 3 to 4 hours but female respondents got bored that means female liked to watch more than four hours.

4) Majority of parents and children usually liked to buy cold-drinks but some children also liked to buy chips type products as well. The researcher find out that these products increase fats on the body especially in children because the age 8-12 years is the grooming age and they need proper and nutritionist diet for their health.

5) Children’s attitude was changed if they did not buy or allow them to buy such edibles. They behaved aggressively with their elders or parents.

6) The children tried to imitate when they saw ads, but some parents responded that they felt some aggressiveness during/after watching ads because advertiser showed super human actions.

7) Parents always bought readymade food products on their children’s demand because they were well earned (refer to graph no. 4). They fulfilled all demands of their children whatever they demanded for eating. This eating habit created eating-disorder in the children of 8-12 years old.

8) Ads of PTV effected their children’s diet because their children having enough money to buy such edible belong to upper class families (refer to graph no.4).

9) Ads of Pakistan Television increased eating disorder and decreased health of children of 8-12 years old.

CONCLUSION

Mostly children are addicted to viewing TV their average of viewing is more then 60% that means they are watching TV more then five hours per day, they are heavy viewers. After/during watching TV’s ads most of the children demanding drinks i.e. coca-cola, des, Pepsi these drinks develops unhealthy habits of children. Some children ages of 10-12 are trying to imitate the same action which they seen during that ads, which are dangerous for their lives.

The data of this research study proves that fats increased in the body of people especially in children, if they regularly drink these products. Increases fat in the body is not good sign because fat creates obesity and hear-diseases. Children are over weight according to their age and height because they are regularly use these cold drinks and eating fried meats outside the home with their parents or elders.

Children having less weight according to their BMI it’s due to their eating disorder. They think that if we eat and drink more than other we have good muscles but their stomachs are not digesting the such food properly, so eating disorder increased and after a couple of months their weight is decreasing. That is only for their eating disorder. They seen that the performer of powder-milk ads is healthier because s/he drink that milk after that they trying to buy and drink that power-milk but they do not know the actual picture.

RECOMMENDATIONS

After concluding the results of the data the researcher give the following recommendations:

i) Policymakers need to take steps to better protect children from exposure to advertising because of the inherent unfairness of advertising to audiences who lack the capability to evaluate wrong information in television advertising.

ii) Parents should attempt to restrict their children’s TV time.

iii) Teachers and parents can help children to decide what they should watch on TV.

iv) Adults should look out for things their children do not understand on TV.

v) Parents should also keep an eye on any other negative effects of watching Pakistan Television on children’s health, eating-disorder and their eye sight problems.

vi) Children should be encouraged both in their schools and at home to discuss television advertising.

vii) Parents/Teachers should help children to look for programmes which relevant for their health and has some positive impacts on their health of Pakistan Television.

Works Cited

Edger A. Shoaff. http://thinkexist.com/quotation/advertising_is_the_art_making_whole_lies/204323.html

Evra, Judith Van: Television and Child Development. (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum 1990).

Kunkel, D., Wilson, B., Donnerstein, E., & Blumenthal, E.: Measuring Television Violence: The importance of context. (Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 1995).

Ibid.

Ibid

Namita Unnikrishnan, and Shailaja Pajpai: The Impact of Television Advertising on Children. (Sage Publications India Private Limited, India 1996)

Namita Unnikrishnan, and Shailaja Pajpai: The Impact of Television Advertising on Children. (Sage Publications India Private Limited, India 1996)

Neeru Kapoor: Television Advertising & Consumer Response. (Mittal Publication, New Delhi, India 2003)

http://weightloss.about.com/od/obesityhealth/a/blwhatsbmi.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obesity

Shanahan James and Michael Morgan: Television and its Viewers: Cultivation Theory and Research. (Cambridge University Press, UK1999)

Syed Abdul Siraj Advertising. Islamabad: Allama Iqbal Open University) 6-8

Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

William F. Arens. Contemporary Advertising (10th Edition). (McGraw-Hill Irwin, United States 2006)

I have done my Master of Sciences and PGD in ELT with Thesis and Dissertation. Now I’m studying M.Phil.

Pre Written Speeches Which you Can Turn to in your Hour of Need

Pre Written Speeches Which you Can Turn to in your Hour of Need

So, you’ve been asked to speak at a wedding. Already you can feel your knees shaking and your throat closing up so tightly that you can barely get a squeak out. This is a normal state of affairs for most people when they learn they have to give a speech of any kind, not only a wedding speech. The good thing about giving a wedding speech however, is the fact that you have at hand, pre written speeches which you can turn to in your hour of need.

These speeches are for the most part, works of art and depending on where you get them from, might even cost you an arm and a leg. But then again, what’s an arm and a leg if you can get up in front of a crowd of people secure in the knowledge that you have a doozy of a wedding speech to give.

This in fact, is the reason why so many people resort to using pre written speeches. For one thing, these have been written by professionals so you know that every penny you spend on them is good, and for another thing if you’re not one of the most literary minded people in the world then you don’t have the hassle of having to write out your speech – all you need to do is to use one of the many pre written speeches.

The one thing you need to be careful about when using pre written speeches however, is that your speech doesn’t end up sounding impersonal. This can very easily happen since none of these pre written speeches were written with you in mind. They are of a necessity a generic formula transformed into something that sounds wonderful, but which is also very impersonal.

So even if you use pre written speeches you might find that you still have to have change things around slightly to make the speech sound more like you, and definitely more personal. Just because you use pre written speeches it doesn’t mean that you have to stick with the formula exactly.

You can change things around slightly to better suit your own personal style of speaking. A tweak here and a small change to reflect your normal speech patterns will make all the difference to your speech, and no one will even know that you are using a pre written speech.

Just remember to substitute the real names of the bridal couple for the names given in the pre written speeches! You really wouldn’t want to say John and Lindsey, when you meant to say John and Danielle!

Muna wa Wanjiru is a Web Administrator and Has Been Researching and Reporting on Wedding Speeches for Years. For More Information on Pre Written Speeches, Visit His Site at PRE WRITTEN SPEECHES

Crop Damages by Wild Animals Global View Country Report and Reviews in 1-10 Sections

Crop Damages by Wild Animals Global View Country Report and Reviews in 1-10 Sections

Crop Damage by Wild Animals

section i general discussions

G.M. Wani

Ph.D ; D.V.M (Germany)

FN ISSGAPU, FN DAAD

Director Extension Education / SAMETI

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir

Shalimar, Srinagar, 191121

 

 

 

A brief global review to asses the damage caused to cultivated crops by wild animals around the world. The review was attempted in response to a recommendation of ICAR Regional Committee No.1 held in Oct, 2007 at Solan, H.p. presided over by Hon’ble Director General, ICAR Dr. Mangala Rai inauguration was chaired by Hon’ble Agriculture Minister J&K, Jenab Ab. Aziz Zargar.

                                                                Author

 

                                   

 

 

 

Published by:  Director State Agricultural Management and Extension Training Institute of Kashmir (SAMETI-K) , SKUAST-K , Shalimar , Post Box: 461, G.P.O, Srinagar.

 

 

                     Publication No: SAMETI/Pub/3/1000/January, 2008

 

 

 

P.O.Box: 461, GPO, Srinagar, E.Mail: Wanimohyuddin@yahoo.com

          Phone:       0194-2461317,0194-2463460,0194-2463459 

          Cell:         09419095342 ; Residence:0194-2431508,2435741

 

 

 

Introduction:

 

       Wild animal-human conflicts have started since beginning of human era from Adam and Eve. This conflict of wilderness made man to hide in caves and he was called as “Cave man”. Slowly, with his advancement it is he who invented Axe and other weapon in stone and iron ages to frighten the wild animals, initially. Later on he hunted them to save himself. This feeling of uncertainty and fear of wild animals and wilderness reduced with the invention of fire. He made sharp weapons of bones and iron. These initial weapons were the beginning of this conflict, Animal human conflict.

Thirty thousand years ago, the human population rose to 6 million. They were still hunters. With the invention of fire, he set fire a vast majority of sanctuaries, which scared wild life and they migrated from his neighborhood. Many forests, hills and difficult terrains were still beyond the reach of man three thousand years before, although human population has increased to 60 million. Man has already started primitive agriculture. He had made his terrains and wild life scared by him left his close habitats and searched for fresh abodes. Man by now had lust for fur, horns, ornaments and other forest resources. He invented many means to frighten whole wild life. He became a “Danger “not only for wild animals but for his own species, environment and eco-biodiversity.

Three hundred years ago he industrialized crop production and produced enough food, for nearly 600 million people. This continued and from 30 year now he is feeding 6000 million people. Today we have a global food security for 7.5 billion. Human food security gains resulted in reduction of all other wild species, thus, the origin of wild- life- human conflict is the lust of man for more food, more luxury or sometimes fun for hunting or fur. This reduced wild life reserves and now a open conflict came into existence.

Many man-wild life conflicts have been reported from Gir forests of Gujarat, Rajaji National Park in UP and many other states where forest lands became cultivable lands. Elephants, wild boars, monkeys, squirrels, deer , birds like crows, parakeets, wild dogs, jackals, gaur, sambur, langure, fowls, pea cocks, neilgai, Hippos, biats, blackbirds, rodents, wild pigs, feral species, primates, beetles, foxes, pigeons, feral hogs and a variety of other species damage crops. The carnivores even attack human too. These attacks are for search of food or their loss of habitat. Many such accidents came to be known in Jammu and Kashmir. The bear leopod and other wild animals are reducing in number. Their habitats used by human.

The human causalities are due to carnivorous species, but herbivores inflict economic and human losses too. The crop damages by wild life has been the new threat to agricultural productivity throughout the world. This also concerns us in Asia and India. This review is aimed to find out:

1.       Extent of damage to crops.

2.       Nature of crop damage

3.       Ways and means to prevent these losses.

4.       A strategic planning to drive a line between wildlife conservation and farm economics especially in India.

 

Executive Abstracts and Strategic elementaries: [EASE]

1.     Importance

                   Species causing crop damages ranges from elephant’s wild birds, monkeys, squirrels, deer, parakeet, wild dogs, foxes, deer and many others like Neilgai. On an average this damage to crops by wild animals amounts to U$ 961 per hectare. It is much more than an Indian Farmer earns from a hacter annually. Therefore, by these estimates, the damages are spectacular and economically important.

2.       Human Elephant conflicts (HEC):

          i) Economic Losses:

                   Among elephants crop raiding is common. The crops near their home ranges are damaged more. Elephants damaging crops had twice big ranges than those who did not damage the crops. Thus, more proximity of the crops near their ranges are prone to crops damages. Train accidents instigate elephants more to crop or human damages. Indonesia saw more frequent raids of elephants on crops. Human elephant conflict (HEC) is frequent and poses serious challenges in Africa. Both male groups and family group attacks have been observed. HEC losses in West Bengal were worth 3.2 croses of Rupees. This damage occurred in 3368sq kms.radius. The numerical number of elephants was 62 only. Assam observes damages to the woodcutters by elephants Asian wild Elephants raid and damage crops in herds of 10-13 individuals or big herds comprising 50-74 elephants. In Darjeeling district alone over an area of 200 kms. East to west, in last two decades 277 houses were demolished by elephants, killing 66 people in 5 districts. As a result of this conflict 23 elephants lost their lives. In 2001, economic loss of the order of US fifty thousand dollars was estimated to be inflicted by elephants. This scenario necessitates comprehensive measures to be taken to lessen these damage. The review of the measures, around the world suggest following few studies to be undertaken and resultant measures to be applied to lessen these damages.

ii)     Mitigation of losses:

          Methods developed and used to mitigate crop damages by elephants consisted of frightening of animals by drum beating, firegracks or even air gun fires. Guarding the crops by fences or even using electric fencing or raising poles and wiring may be effective. Chemical based deterrents, and electric fencing have been found to reduce crop damages. High voltage electric fencing using energizers in west have prevented wild animals damaging crop but this preposition may not be applicable in areas where even habitations do not have access to electricity. However, this method may act as a temporary boundary separating wild and domestic habitats. This could prevent intrusions from sly vatic to domestic foci. Guarding fields, digging trenches, modifying cropping patterns have a possibility of reducing man elephant conflicts or Human elephant conflicts. A 30% open space between two habitats may help to avoid HEC. This means a distance to be maintained between cropping fields and elephant habitates. A proper investigation on these lines is needed. A grid based geographical information system (GIS) with a 25Km2 resolution may help to have cost effective data source to analyze these situations. There is urgent need of identifying spatial predictors of HEC. On the basis of this study one can suggest or plan mitigation strategies, early warnings of attacks, use of barriers and deterrents. The utility of the methods could be assessed for land use and livelihood strategies to limit HEC.

 

3.       Dear-Nilgai Damages.

          A survey of 2500 farms in UK revealed that 69% (n=192) cereal crops were damaged by deer. This damage costed £500 per annum per farm. Damages varied with deer density. In USA too deer damages comprised of crop loss, landscape damages, car accidents and property damages. Nilgai damages alongwith deer damages are common in India too. Tree cover of Acacia in the area is generally used as shelter by Nilgai. We have encountered huge crop damage in Mathura (CIRG) and nearby area by Nilgai visits. Grazing and browsing of Nilgai inflict losses on farms. This is regarded as a mammalian crop threat by the farmers. This behaviour of their inflict ozone injury to the young sapling, so precious for the growth of trees in Indian semi-arid farms.

 

          Corn damages by deer in USA amounts to 6.6.% per hectare. In an area where a farmer owned 125 hectare on an average 55 hectares were used to sow corn. There is a 6.6% loss of the product which is a huge economic loss. Similar damages by deer in Ontario, Canada, Portugal, Japan, South America and other parts of the world have been reviewed. In Virginia too a study involving 1506 agricultural producer farmers revealed 58% of them experiencing deer damages. Ways and means to prevent such attacks on crops have been reviewed. Most of the possible measures to be adopted are similar to these described for elephants (HEC).

 

4.    Other Mammal and bird damages

 

          Monkey damages maize, sweet potato and other crops. It is suggested to reduce or change cropping pattern or alternating with non-agricultural activities near location of monkey habitats. Various methods are reviewed. Bat damage, Hygo crop damages in Japan, Grape wine damages by bats in Andra Pradesh, India have been studied. Crop economic loss assessment has been reviewed in these pages. Clover rather than grass can reduce wild mammal damages. Alley cropping of black walnuts helped to save soyabean and maize crop damages. Pesticide damages wildlife and minimize their attacks, enclosures and other electric fencing help to avoid such damage. Can one use harmful means to save crops, need a suitable strategy to preserve ecology and biodiversity. Both crops and wild animals need security and conservation. A management strategy is needed to safeguard human and wildlife equally.  A policy framework is envisaged.

 

          Blackbird crop damage in USA amounts to 5-8 million dollars. A considerable sum of crores of rupees have been estimated to be damages in the form of crop, human and property losses by wild animals, birds and other rodents in India. Many measures to reduce these losses are needed and have been reviewed.

 

 

 

 

 

Review

1. Wild animals damaging crops

To elephants wild boar, porcupine, rheus macaque (Macaca mulatta), hoary-bellied squirrel, barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak), red-breasted parakeet (Psittacula alexandri), and wild dog are wild animals damaging crops.

Methods developed and being used to mitigate man-wildlife conflict include, frightening the animals; guarding the crops; and using some sort of scarecrow and traps (Miah et al 2001).

Accurate estimation of crop damage by wildlife (raccoons, white-tailed deer, and coyotes) often requires labour-intensive sampling procedure. Variable area transect (VAT) sampling has been identified as a potential labour-saving alternative to quadrat sampling ( Engerman et al 2002).

 

2. Wild life Human conflicts

Agricultural landowners suffer in the form of damage to crops, livestock, and other property. Some wildlife agencies maintained abatement and compensation programmes. A model of deer-inflicted crop damage used to facilitate agency decisions regarding deer densities and distribution, abatement use, and to forecast compensation. The model is applied to field-level compensation claims in Wisconsin, USA. The results are consistent with theory, ( Yoder J, 2002).

 

3.  Crop Economic loss due to wild life

          People’s perceptions were discerned through participatory discussions covering 419 households distributed in 10 villages in the buffer zone. Traditional uncodified rights of local people were substantially reduced through policy interventions set in since 1860s. Local people as well as tourists have been excluded from the core zone covering an area of 625 km2 since 1982. Deterioration of rural economy due to damage to crop and livestock by wildlife and, termination of opportunities of income from wild medicinal plant resources and tourism in the core zone were the key negative impacts of conservation policy felt by more than 90% of respondents. Mean annual economic loss per household was estimated as Rs.1285, Rs. 1195 and Rs.156 due to damage caused by wildlife to food crops, fruit trees and beehives, respectively, Rs. 1587  due to ban on collection of wild medicinal plants for marketing and Rs.7904 due to ban on tourism in the core zone. The Reserve authority granted compensation for livestock killed by wildlife but it was hardly 5% of the market value of killed livestock as assessed by the people. People did not appreciate much the present benefits from the reserve management in the form of wages for carrying out afforestation work, partial compensation for livestock depredation and availability of solar power devices, wool, and spinning devices. Approximately 95% respondents identified empowerment of local people in respect of realizing income from timber from dead/diseased trees in community forests, income from medicinal plants in buffer zone and opening of the core zone for tourism as potential development options. Improvement in rural economy, the prime concern of local people, has not received as much attention as legal enforcement of protection by the reserve management. There is a need for developing policies and management actions that serve the economic interests of local people together with enhancement of environment conservation goal (Maikhuri et al 2001).

 

4.  Crop selection:

Damage was less (34%) in experimental carrot as multiple crop than  carrots as only crop planted (62% damage). Staggered plantings of canola, which continuously produced flowers, was the most effective lure crop of the green manure crops we tested. Carrot producers should use electric fences or 2.4-m woven wire fences, perhaps combined with staggered canola plantings, to reduce carrot depredations ( Schwab et al 2001).

          The colver, rather than fertilized grass, is more effective cover crop on AFAs, against damage by migratory geese. The sward should be managed to encourage clover growth, which would probably involve frequent cutting but no fertilizer. Further research is needed on clover replenishment rate over the winter season and possible benefits of clover leys to other wild life (McKay et al 2001). Alley cropping of black walnuts and percent with maize and soyabean rotations may avoid will animal damages. Tree –crop ratio of 1:10 may help( Godsey, 2000).

 

5.  Elephan- human conflicts:

Conflicts between elephants (Elephas maximus) and human occur in Rajaji National Park (RNP), Uttar Pradesh, one of eleven reserves designated in India, to conserve Asian elephants. Elephant-human. The conflicts in RNP from 1996 to 1999 were studied, and all human and elephant deaths or injuries caused by conflict were recorded. The impact of human colonies on elephant movement was studied in 18 villages along 17 km of the sourthern boundary of the study site and 4 village in the Chilla-Motichur corridor. Three male and four female elephants were radio tracked for 1-2 years. Primary conflicts included crop raiding, competition between humans and elephants for vegetation, and elephant mortality due to train accidents. Adult males that raided crops had home ranges twice as large as adult males that did not raid crops. Elephants only damaged crop of fields that occurred within their home ranges. Field trails of chemical based deterrents and electric fencing should be tried to reduce crop damage. Train speeds need to be reduced to prevent accidental elephant mortality (Williams et al 2001).

 

Wild Elephant damages:

          A rapid village and field assessments, data survey showed. Elephants raided crops at a rate of 0.53 elephants per day in Indonesia. The frequency of crop raiding was related to vegetation type along the park border, the size and presence of rivers, and the distance to the park’s Elephant Training Centre (ETC), which houses about 150 captive elephants. Wild elephants damaged at least 450000  m2 of maize, rice, cassava, beans and other annual crops, and close to 900 coconut, banana and other perennial trees in the area surveyed. Elephants killed or injured 24 .Villagers try to reduce elephant damage by guarding fields, digging trenches between the park and their fields, and modifying their cropping patterns. Elephants-human conflict decreases the probability of support from local people for conservation efforts. The approaches are suggested consist of elephant trenches, electric fences, external support to affected villages, and compensation to villagers for any damage caused (Nyhus et al 2000).

          This study explores land use conflict in south east Kajiado District, Kenya. The results of household surveys conducted with farmers and herders in 1977 and 1996 to examine changes in land management strategies are compared. The conflict reflects ongoing competition over access to scarce land and water resources between herding, farming and wildlife are the reason of damage of crops. This man-animal conflict needs understanding the conditions that have created the present conflicts (Compbell et al 2000).

It is, therefore, suggested that 30% open space be used as a basic division for stratifying thickets into low –use and high-use categories for deer density estimation. The proportions of each type could be derived from grid-square measurements of aerial photographs (Latham J 2000).

 

 

Human elephant conflict

          Human-elephant conflict (HEC) in Africa occurs wherever these two species coincide, and poses serious challenges to wild life managers, local communities and elephants alike. Mitigation requires a details understanding of underlying patterns and processes. Although temporal patterns of HEC are relatively predictable, spatial variation has shown few universal trends, making it difficult to predict where conflict will take place. Crop raiding was further subdivided into incidents involving only male elephants or family groups. A relatively fine-resolution, systematic, grid –based method was used to assign the locations of conflict incidents, and spatial relations with underlying variables were explored using correlation analysis and logistic regression. Crop raiding was clustered into distinct conflict zones. Both occurrence and intensity could be predicted on the basis of the area under cultivation and, for male elephant groups, proximity to major settlement. Conversely, incidents human injury and death were less predictable but were correlated with proximity to roads. A grid-based geographical information system (GIS) with a 25km2 resolution utilizing cost-effective data source, combined with simple statistical  tools, was capable of identifying spatial predictors of HEC, At finer resolutions spatial autocorrelation compromised the analyses. Synthesis and application. These results suggest that spatial correlates of HEC can be identified, regardless of the sex of the elephants involved. Moreover, the method described here is fully transferable to other sites for comparative analysis of HEC. Using these results to map vulnerability will enable the development and deployment of appropriate conflict mitigation strategies, such as guarding, early warning systems, barriers and deterrents. The utility of such methods and their strategic deployment should be assessed alongside alternative land-use and livelihood strategies that limit cultivation within the elephant range (Sitati et al 2003).

          Human elephant conflicts (HEC) in west Bengal was an economic loss worth 3.2 crores. This much damage occurred in 3368 sq km radius inhibiting 62 elephants (Singh et al 2002)

 

6.   Kerala Survey

Crop damage by wild animals in Kerala, India, was studied from 1993 to 1996. Data were collected from the offices of the Kerala Forest Department, field survey and from the intensive study area at Marayur, Idukki District. Forty-five species of crops were destroyed by wild animals in Kerala, the species commonly destroyed by wild animals were paddy, coconut plam , plantains , cassava , arecanut, coffee, oil plam , pepper , jack tree, mulberry and manago. The main animals involved in crop damage were elephant (Elephas maximus), gaur (Bos gaurus),sambar (Cervus unicolor), wild boar (Sus scrofa), bonnet macaque (Macaca radiate), common langur (Presbytis entellus), blacknaped hare (Lepus nigricollis) and pea fowl (Pavo cristatus). Among these, elephants and  wild board gave maximum damage . Of the total compensation claimed by the farmers, only 8.2% was sanctioned by the Kerala Forest Department. The highest crop damage (30%) was recorded from the forest ranges coming under the Northern Circle: pinapple (47%) , sweet potato (47%), tapioca (42%), alocasia (39%) , beans (25%) and plantains (23%) recorded highest percentage of damage. In the intensive study area at Marayur, 28 species of crops were damaged and highest damage was during the summer months. At maximum damage was due to elephant (72%) followed by gaur (62%) , sambar (17%) and wild boar (16%) . Tiger (Panthera tigris), panther (leopard) (Panthera pardus) and wild dog (Conine alpinus) were the main cattle lifters in the state. A total of 31 deaths and 64 injuries caused by wild animals were recorded from the state during the period 1983 to 1993. Thirteen indigenous methods used for controlling the crop damage had been identified. High voltage electric fencing using energizer was effective for stopping elephants and other herbivores from entering the agriculture fields. Crop damage is found to be linked to the cropping pattern and location of the agriculture fields. Short term and long-term measures needed to prevent the crop damage are discussed (Jayson  EA,1999).

 

7.  Bird crop damages

 

Use of non-lethal method to avoid crop damages by bird have been reported. Blueberry damages by cedar waxwings (Bombycilla cedrotun were minimized. (Avery et al 2002).

 

8. Wild Bird damage

 

          In the northern Great Plains of USA,  conflicts between red-winged black birds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and sunflower (Helianthus annus)  growers have intensified since the late 1960s due  to the expanded  commercial production of sunflowers. We studied the potential population effects of the removal of up to 2 million red-winged blackbirds annually under a 5 year programme of baiting during spring with DRC-1339 (3-choloro-4 methalalanine) treated rice. They also examined whether lethal control, in combination with current levels of breeding habitat management, would be cost effective in decreasing depredation of sunflower crops during  late summer. They evaluated the cost benefit ration for 4 culling scenarios involving (1) variable annual cullus, not exceeding 2 million birds, with and without density compensation (i.e. ,a positive density-dependent response) on adult survival and (2) culls of 2 million birds annually with and without density compensation .We constructed a red –winged blackbird population model  represented as an age-based matrix and calibrated to stable growth. We assumed a total population of 27 million birds on 1 April (week 1), representing the red-winged blackbird breeding population staging in eastern Southern Dakota and migrating into North Dakota.Under each culling scenario, we reduced the stable red-winged blackbird population (Equally for females and males) and project the population through week 23 of the annual cycle (2 Sep). We then evaluated the associated costs of the management relative to potential sunflower crop losses, assuming .07 in damage per bird and  4% loss to other factors. Variable annual culls, likely the more biologically realistic model scenarios, yielded mean annual removals of 1 240 560 (SE=12 328) birds with density compensation and 1 231 620 (SE=28 811) birds without density compensation,, with cost benefit ratios of 1:2.3 and 1:3.6, respectively. Annual intrinsic rates for the model population over  the 5 year period ranged from 1-4 to 4.8%. Considering potential variability in the effectiveness of the cull and  the combination of direct and indirect costs,we contend  that the realized benefits to sunflower growers by lethal control of red-winged blackbiards via spring baiting , in combination with current nonlethal management efforts, would likely be negligible (Blackwell et al 2003).

          The efficacy of hydrolyzed casein (HC) and retail products that contain HC in reducing deer damage to trees and shrubs was determined in a field experiments conducted in USA during 2004-05. The results of the experiments indicate the suitability of HC as a deer repellent. Technical grade HC completely eliminated browsing damage to evergreen shrubs (Gaultheria shallon) and conifers (Thuja plicata). Retail sources of HC were not as effective as the pure hydrolyzed protein (Kimball et al 2005).

 

 

9. Blackbird damages

          The economic impact of blackbirds can be severe to rice producers in the United States. One approach to managing this damage is the application of bird-deterrent chemical to the crop. Previous pilot trials suggested that caffeine offered potential as a safe, economical bird repellent. In this study, cage feeding trials  with female red –winged blackbirds and male brown headed cowbirds confirmed that a treatment rate of 25000 ppm caffeine on rice seed reduced consumption as much as 76% . Trials with mixed species blackbirds flocks in  a 0.2-ha flight pen resulted in just 4% loss of caffine-treated rice compared to 43% loss of untreated rice. . Field trials of a 10 000 ppm caffeine treatment in Louisiana revealed > 90% of caffeine-treated rice seed remained unconsumed on days 2 and 3 of the study whereas blackbirds consumed > 80% of the untreated seed. As a rice seed treatment to deter blackbirds, caffeine appears to be effective, economical and environmentally safe, although additional aquatic toxicity testing is desirable. Improvements in formulation will be needed to make the compound practical for general agricultural spray applications and to extend the adherence of caffeine to rice seeds in field conditions ((Avery et al 2005).

 

10. Deer damage

A questionnaire was distributed to over 2500 farms to know damage  caused by lowland deer to crops, trees and vegetation. Results from the questionnaire showed that 69% (n=1192) of responding farmers had deer on their holdings and that Roe and Fallow were the most frequently seen species. On those farms with deer present, cereals were the most commonly damaged crop (44%), but only 15% of these farmers claimed that the annual cost of damage to cereals exceeded £500 each year for the whole farm. Validation assessments were based on two visits to assess deer damage to the crop, with a deer species/density assessment during the March assessment and an assessment of grain yield and quality during the August assessment. Respondents were generally accurate in the density and species of deer reported. The percentage of the farm suffering damage attributable to deer was very variable, generally being higher at the first assessment than the second. The figures calculated for yield loss were generally low, Farmers were poor at estimating the economic impact of deer damage when compared to validation data, but a number of parameters may have changed in the two years between the questionnaire distribution and validation, including changes in deer density, crop rotations, and the marked drop in grain prices, which may account for some of the inaccuracies. There were no statistically significant relationships between deer damage assessments and yield loss, either for individual species or both species combined. The relationship between Roe deer damage at the harvest assessment and Roe deer density was significant (Post et al, 2001).

Wildlife managers must consider the public’s preferences for wildlife population levels when determining management policies. 849 farmers, hunters and the general public of Maryland. USA, were surveyed in 1996 to determine their preferences for increasing, maintaining, or decreasing deer population numbers. Using a random utility theoretic framework, the factors that explain preferences such as residential location, socioeconomic characteristics, landscape damage, agricultural yield loss and vehicle accidents were analyzed. Results suggested that the majority of people benefit from deer and want to keep deer population at current levels. Other characteristics such as age, income, education, and residential location have minor or no impact on preferences. Property damage, crop loss, landscape damage, and car accidents appear to be the biggest concerns ( Curtis et al 2001).

 

11. Sika deer population in Japan

          Sika deer Cervus nippon population in eastern Hokkaido, Japan, increased rapidly during 1990-1998 . This increase appeared to have halted in 1999-2000, probably due to increased hunting and nuisance control. The period of rapid increase was associated with a disproportionately rapid increase in compensation paid for deer damage to crops. We studied changes in diet during 1990-2000, as reflected by stable isotope ratios of C and N in tooth collagen. We hypothesized that isotope ratios would demonstrate dietary shifts related to population levels and/or time, and that shifts in isotope ratios would be consistent with increasing individual  consumption of pasture grasses at higher population levels, delta 13C isotope ratios of tooth collagen in 3 year-old sika indicated a diet dominated by C3 plants throughout the period, and that forage species other than pasture grasses and dwarf bamboo Sasa nipponica ( the main crop and woodland understory plants,  respectively) were important elements. There was a significant decline in the delta 13C isotope ratio during  1990-2000 in both males and females, delta 15N values showed no trend with time for males, but increased over time in females. Indices of population (Sightings per Unit Effort, SPUE) were negatively correlated with female delta 13C, and positively correlated with female delta 15N, values indicating a shift in diet over the period , especially among females. This shift may be related to population and/or offtake levels, in particular  the rapid increase in female offtake for nuisance control and hunting during the period. The data are consistent with a relative increase in pasture grass consumption per individual at higher population levels, however, other  explanations of the data are equally plausible. Possible dietary changes, and other factors, influencing the observed shift in isotope ratios are discussed. Although statistically significant, the magnitude of dietary shifts  nevertheless appeared small, and did not provide evidence which would justify modifying the current policy, of limiting crop damage through managed population reduction to about 25% of peak levels( Halley et al 2006).

 

12.  White-tailed deer damages

          White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) may cause more damage than any other species of wildlife. These damages include crop loss, automobile and aviation collisions, disease transmission, environmental degradation, and destruction of ornamental  plantings. One practical method of controlling deer damage is the use of exclusionary fences. The relatively high cost of labor and materials required to build effective fences has limited most applications to the protection of orchards, vegetable farms, other high –value resources, and mitigation of human health and safety risks. Improvements in fence technology resulting in less expensive, yet effective fence have expanded the use of fence to manage damage caused by deer. Fence typically installed to manage white-tailed deer damage include wire or plastic mesh, electrified high-tensile steel wire, and electrified polytape or polyrope fence. They reviewed the scientific literature on fencing to determine which fence designs would be the most effective for excluding deer in a variety of situations (VerCauteren et al 2006).

          The installation of fences to protect agricultural products, natural resources, or other areas from deer (Odocoileus spp.) can be expensive and potential benefits of fencing are difficult to quantify. A rational method is needed to help evaluate whether fencing can be cost effective and which fence designs will be optimal for particular applications. They describe an interactive, dynamic simulation model that conducts economic analyses and predicts economic benefit associated with fences for crops relative to area and perimeter of protected plot, value of crop, percentage of crop damaged by deer annually prior to fencing, efficacy of fence, and costs of fence materials and labor. Users of the model can easily adjust these variables to fit their individual situations and needs. By running a series of simulations, model users can answer questions related directly to fence efficacy and cost-effectiveness (VerCauteren K et al 2006).

 

13. Corn damage by wild life

          Corn damages in USA were estimated at 6.6 per hac due to wild life. The white tailed deer was the wild animal responsible for loss. The average hacters owned by farmers were 125 out of which 55 hectares were sown corn. (Tzilkowsi et al 2002).

 

14.  Deer Damage

          Deer (Odocoileus spp.) can cause substantial damage to agricultural crops, resulting in economic losses for producers. They developed a deer activated bio-acoustic frightening device to reduce white-tailed deer (O, virginianus) damage in agricultural fields. The device considered of an infrared detection system that activated an audio component which broadcast recorded distress and alarm calls of deer. They tested the device against unprotected controls in cornfields during the silking-tasseling stage of growth in July 2001. The device was not effective in reducing damage: track-count indices (F1,4=0.02), corn yield (F1,9=1.27,P=0.289), and estimated damage levels (F1,10=0.87, P=0.374) did not differ between experimental and control fields. The size (F2,26=1,00,P=0.380), location (F2,25=0.39,P=0.684), and percent overlap (F2,25=0.20,P=0.818) of use-areas of radiomarked female deer did not differ between during and after treatment periods. They concluded that the deer-activated bio-acoustic device was not effective in protecting cornfields in this study; however, the device may be more effective in small areas such as gardens or for high value crops that do not grow tall enough to offer protective cover (Gilsdorf et al 2004).

          White –tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) cause millions of dollars of damage to agricultural crops annually . They tested the effectiveness of propane exploders and Electronic Guards (Pocatello Supply Depot, Pocatello, Id). For reducing deer damage in corn fields during the silking-tasseling stage of growth. Track-count indices (F2,7=0.70,P=0.532), corn yield (F2,6=0.14, P=0.873), and estimated damage levels (F2, 12=1,45 P=0.272) did not differ between experimental and control fields. The size (F2,11=0.08,P =0.924), Location  (F2,9=0.30, P=0.750), and percent overlap (F2,9=0.46, P=0.644) of use –areas of radiomarked female deer in the vicinity of experimental fields did not differ  among before, during and after 18 day treatment periods. In a related study, we placed propane exploders in cornfields within use-areas of 12 radiomarked female deer. The deer did not react appreciably to the devices; the size (F2, 17=0.08, P=0.921), location (F2,22=1.37, P=0.275), and percent overlap (f2,10=0.47, P=0.636) of deer use areas did not differ among before, during, and after 14 day treatment periods. They conclude that propane exploders and Electronic Guards have limited potential for reducing deer damage to corn at the silking-tasseling stage (Glisdorf et al 2004l.

 

          A welfare measure for wildlife damage to Ontario (Canada) field crop producers during the 1998 was. The welfare measure presented in this study provides a more accurate picture of losses from wildlife damage to agricultural. Other damage estimates based on yield loss overstate the damage since benefits from wildlife are netted out. Results for the Ontario field crop producers indicate that the magnitude of the difference between the value of the yield loss and the welfare measure of damage is approximately 50%. This difference indicates that most farmers were willing to tolerate the wildlife damage they experienced (Heigh et al 2001).

 

15. Grapevine damages

          In field trials in 1999-2000 in Gundla Pochampally, Andhra Pradesh, India , the incidence of damage to green grapevines was studied. Visits to the vines by bats begain around 45 minutes after sunset and foraging continued until 1 hour  before sunrise. Damage occurred to ripe fruit only, and increased around harvesting time, percentage damage ranged from 0 to 100% (Bhargavi et al, 2001).

 

16.   Hippo damage

          The introduction to the paper described the various ecological effects known to result from grazing, movement along paths, and wallowing by the common hippo. Hippopotamus amphibious. The study reported was carried out at Kainji Lake National Park., Nigeria, during  the dry season periods {of 1991 and 1992} . The method adopted by Agnew, A.D.Q. (East African Wildlife Journal (1966) 4, 38-46) was used to assess hippo foraging footprints at three hippo pool sites. A total of 32 footpaths were enumerated out of which 18 were located at Kaii hippo pool site, while the frequency of utilization of paths was also higher for this site relative to those in other area. The upstream-downstream trend in hippo occupancy of dry  season water pools could expose the hippo to crop damage conflicts at the peripheral areas.

 

17.  Hygo-Japan-mammal crop damages

 

          Mammals inhabiting  Hyogo consist of seven orders, 17 families and about 40 species. Except for Lagomorpha and  Artiodactyla, the remaining five orders among them include species which need some protection and they total about 55% of all species excluding extinct, introduced and feral species. Ecological information in Hyogo prefecture has been accumulated in few protection-required species there is no recent information of spatial distribution on Oriental water-shrew, Japanese noctule-bat and Japanese dormouse; and little information on Japanese shrew, Japanese horse-shoe bat, Japanese large –footed bat. Schreiber’s bent-winged bat, Japanese tube-nosed bat, common parti-colored bat, Japanese squirrel, Japanese small flying-squirrel, Japanese giant flying-squirrel, smith’s vole harvest mouse and Japanese badger. Damage and population managements is also necessary in sika deer and Japanese wild boar, to reduce their crop–damaging, and comprehensive management in Japanese black bear, an endangered local population, to prevent human-bear fatal accident. Habitat alteration due to human activities, however, has affected the population sizes and spatial distribution of all these, mammals in Hyogo. Habitat management has priority over damage. Fundamental and applied scientific studies and understanding of ecology and wildlife management science needs promotion by citizens (Mitani M 2000).

 

18. Monkey damage

 

          Forty-seven property owners in Entebbe, Uganda were questioned about vervet monkey activities on their property. The objective was to investigate the interactions between humans and vervet monkeys in an agricultural area adjacent to a forest zone. Other studies have reported that farms located within 300 m of a forested boundary probably incur the greatest risk of crop-raiding. Two other factors that may influence susceptibility to vervet crop-raiding were also examined: the types of crops grown and the types of direct preventive measures used. The effect of these two factors on vervet crop-raiding is not straight forward. However, the distance a property is located from the forest edge is an important factor influencing vervet crop raiding. Surveyed  gardens 200 m from the  forest edge received significantly less crop –raiding than farms located  100 or 50m (P=0.040,Saj et al 2001).

 

19. Bait damage

          The longevity of zinc phosphide (ZP) on whole wheat bait  was determined at the end of the “dry” and “wet” seasons,  is Western Australia.. While the total rainfall during the two trials was 74 mm and 155mm, substantial loss of ZP was recorded only after significant rainfall events. Irrespective of season, the loss of ZP from bait applied in bait stations was minimal. The maximum recorded loss was 17% and this occurred after  21 days’ exposure during the wet season where the bait stations were placed in-crop. Nevertheless, regardless of the application method, sufficient ZP always remained on the wheat bait. Theoretically  it was lethal to rats for at least 8-14 days (Twigg et al.,  2001).

20.Venezuela experience:

          In Venezuela, lethal control of wintering Dickcissels (Spiza Americana) is considered a threat to the species survival. To help farmers protect their rice and sorghum crops from by Dickcissels and to minimize the killing of large numbers of these birds, alternative non-lethal crop protection measures are needed. To that end, the responses of captive Dickcissels to three bird-repellent chemicals (anthraquinone,methyl anthranilate and methiocarb) applied to rice seed were evaluated. In one-cup feeding trials, treatments of methiocarb (0.05% g/g, applied as Mesurol 75%  wettable powder) and anthraquinone (0.5%, applied as Flight Control) reduced consumption of rice by 70% relative to pretreatment consumption. Other anthraquinone treatments (0.05,0.1%) and methyl authranilate (0.05%) were inrffective. In two –cup trials, with untreated millet as the alternative food, consumption of rice treated with 0.05 and 0.1%  anthraquinone was reduced by 90% relative to pretreatment levels. Overall, Dickcissels responded to the repellents similarly to the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). Because Flight Control has been used successfully to reduce blackbird use of rice fields in the USA, the prospect is good for successful reduction of damage to repening rice by Dickcissels in Venezuela, particularly if repellent use is coupled with the establishment of alternative feeding sites ( Avery et al 2001). Deer selected carrots over all green manure crops.

 

21. Nilgai damages in India

           Crop-damage by nilgai has been widely reported from India.  Are give Nilgai is for increasing in this region. Lack of natural predators, deforestation overgrazing and the protection of these animals from Hindu communities are reasons for their overpopulation. Tree cover of Acacia are generally used by nilgai as a day time shelter but not food,  therefore it goes for crop-raiding in the late evening and at night, jumping across 6-7 feet high stone wall, barbed fencing and fences of dead or live thorny plant material and any other fencing/barrier made to protect the crop-. Due to habit of both grazing as well as browsing they devore every kind of farm species (both rabi and kharif crops). It has been observed that eating less but destroying more by trampling and causing damage are therefore regarded as serious mammalian crop pest and farmers wants to get ride of this unconventional pest. The farmers chase them away by just following them by making loud sound by crackers or air gun fires, following through tractors, empty tin or dried pumpkin filled with small stones and connected with strings. Technically, carrots(enclosures), trenching or power fencing are suggested to mitigate the crop damage. Secondly, animals could be translocated to wildlife sanctuaries from the sites they seen overcrowded or severe crop raiding problems (Goyal et al 2000).

 

22.  Pesticides and wildlife

A range of monitoring activities has shown impacts of anticholinesterase pesticides on UK wildlife, and continued risks are evident from laboratory and field experiments, together with the scale of use in the field. Along with other broad spectrum insecticides, many organophosphates have adverse direct effects on non-target arthropods in farmland, and so are likely to contribute towards indirect effects of pesticides on farmland biodiversity. The anticholinesterase insecticides have both lethal and sublethal effects on aquatic wildlife, however the history of recent incidents of damage to river ecology following the wider use of synthetic pyrethroid sheep dips, illustrates the need to consider the implications of changes in the use of alternative products when reviewing these insecticides ( Burn 2000).

 

          The use of anthraguinone-based flight control and methyl anthranilate-based non toxic avian foraging repellent we used to avoid crop damage by sandhill cranes. Thought both repellents were effective at deterring cranes from treated corn, neither has been tested on corn under field conditions. (Blackwell et al 2001).

          Oak seedlings were scientifically raised. Seedling mortality and wild life browse damages were minimal when certain herbicide mixture was used. Biologically and aesthetically, the procedure was extremely successful (Ezell et al 1999).

          Pre-commercially thinned (forests are less prone to moose damage (McLaren et al, 2000).

 

23.  Pesticide use in conflicts

          Pesticides can cause damage to man and beneficial organism. Some sub-lethal effects of pesticides were studied in birds with a view to identifying  characteristic biochemical responses that may be useful for the monitoring of exposure to sub-lethal levels in the field. Pesticides were used; demeton-S-methyl, (DSM),chlorpyriphos, chlorfenviphos, triazophos, pirimicarb, methiocarb and permethrin. Blood was collected before dosing, and 2,6,24,48 and 72 hours after the treatment from the brachial vein of birds. Enzyme, activities were assayed in the plasma or serum samples obtained. The assays used were GOT,MHD, GDH, SDH,GAMMA GT and ChE. The results showed an increase in plasma and serum GOT and gamma-GT levels were found in all animals treated with the previous pesticides. The level of ChE increased in birds after treatment with permethrin. It was concluded that the pesticides cause structural and functional changes in the liver and also, the measurement of the previous parameter activities may be useful for assessing exposure and sub-lethal effects of pesticides on the wildlife (Dahamna et al 2004).

 

 

24. IPM and crop losses

          The queensland sugar, industry has recently implemented a comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) system to minimize crop losses from two antive rodent species, Rattus sordidus (canefield rat) and Melomy burtoni (climbing rat). These species inflicted approximately M of damage in a major outbreak in the  1999-2000 seasons. Both of these rodents are listed as common wildlife under the schedules of the queensland nature Conservation (Wildlife) Regulation 1994. The IPM programme is based on understanding the ecology and biology of each species. It incorporates a large-scale monitoring programme aimed at providing early warning of imminent rodent build up to avert major outbreaks. The industry has also  developed a memorandum of understanding with Queensland State Government, which delivers on the industry’s pest management needs, while providing an improved system of accountability for the taking of two of Queenslands native wildlife species. The consensus reached between the cooperating parties (The Bureau of sugar Experiment Stations, CANEGROWERS, regionally-based Cane Productivity Services, and the outcomes can be negotiated between rural industry and environmental interests (Hunt et al 2004)  .

          In Areas around Lake Mburo National Park ,large wild animals wander in close proximity to human settlement . This poses serious conflict in terms of crop damage. The integration of conservation with other land uses is difficult where densely settled agricultural land surrounds a protected area potentially containing problem animals, as is the case for several parks in Africa and Asia. The intensity of crop raiding was quantified through the use of random crop quadrants/plots and area estimation techniques in a portion of raided fields. The animal species concerned were documented from observations, footprints and any other marks left behind. Three variables were tested as predictors of damage; human population density, distance from the park boundary and season. In this study data is presented regarding crop loss in the different seasons of the year, analysis of crop damage variation and animal species involved in crop loss. A diverse assemblage of animals foraged on subsistence crops and analysis of crop damage revealed significant crop depreciation by wildlife( Kagoro et al 2004).

 

 

 

25.  Hawai Pest

          The apple snail, P.canaliculata, is an aquatic freshwater snail native to South America, Originally imported to Hawai’i as pets for the aquarium trade, they were soon introduced into wetland plots known as “lo’s” where taro (Colocasia esculenta), an economically and culturally significant crop, is grown. Some individuals reasoned that the snails, being edible, could be harvested as food, and that raising the snails along with the taro in the “Io’s” would provide income supplemental to the taro harvest with minimum additional input. This introduction of snails into the taro “lo’i” however, proved to be a disaster. Farmers failed to take into account the voracity , reproductive potential, and rapid growth of the snails. Because of the ideal conditions in the taro “lo’i”, the snails  multiplied rapidly and fed heavily on the taro shoots and corns in many cases, destroying a complete crop before harvest time. Hindisight has shown that the snails are dissipated via the irrigation system throughout the “lo’i” and then spread to the surrounding wetland areas. Large breeding populations are now established in wetland areas on the islands of Hawai’e, O’ahu, Kaua’I, and Maui. Some of  these wetlands are wildlife preserves with state and federal mandates that restrict the potential methods of eradication. Background information is provided on both P.canaliculata and taro to fully explain the challenges and opportunities that this situation presents (Tamaru et al 2006).

 

26.  Chemical repellents

          Chemical feeding repellents applied to ripening sunflower might help reduce blackbird (lcteridae) damage, which is a chronic agricultural problems from seed information harvest. However, cost are high to develop and register new repellents for agricultural use. In 2003 and 2004, we evaluated feeding repellency of  8 pesticides registered by the Environmental Protection Agency for use in sunflower. Caged red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were fed unshelled sunflower seeds treated with the following pesticides: 5 pyrethroid insecticides, an organochlorine, an organophosphorus, and a gungicide. Compared to untreated refernce groups, feeding rates were reduced for 4 of the 5 pyrethroid insecticides. Only the organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos), however, significantly decreased feeding rates. More research on repellency effects of this product in field efficacy trials is probably warranted based on the results of our cage experiments. Depending on timing of application, registered insecticides with blackbird feeding repellency could provide supplemental economic benefits to sunflower producers through dual purpose use ((Linz et al 2006).

 

27. Persistent organic pollutants (POPS)

          Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have spread throughout the global environment to threaten human health and damage ecosystems, with evidence of POPs contamination in wildlife, human blood, and breast milk documented worldwide. Based on data from the US Food and Drug Administration, this article provides a brief overview of POPs residues in common foods in the USA food supply. The analysis focuses on 12 chemical compounds now targeted for an international phase out under the Stockholm convention on POPs. The available information indicates that POPs residues are present in virtually all categories of foods, including baked goods, fruit, vegetables, meat, poultry, and dairy products. Residues of five or more persistent toxic chemicals in a single food item are not unusual, with the most commonly found POPs being the pesticides DDT ( and its metabolites, such as DDE) and dieldrin. Estimated daily doses of dieldrin alone exceed the US Environmental Protection Agency and US Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Control reference dose for children. Given the widespread occurrence of POPs in the food supply and the serious health risks associated with even extremely small levels of exposure, prevention of further food contamination must be a national health policy priority in every country. Implementation of the Stockholm Convention will prevent further accumulation of persistent toxic chemicals in food. Early ratification and rapid implementation of this treaty should be an urgent priority for all governments (Schafer et al 2002).

 

28. Netherland experiences

          Traditionally, pink-footed geese Anser Brachyrhynchus wintering in Denmark, the Netherlands and Belgium have used the Danish sites only during mild winter, rapidly moving southwards in case of cold spells. Since the 1980s, an increasing number of geese have remained on the Danish wintering grounds despite cold spells, foraging on pastures Because winter wheat represented a reliable and profitable food source even in sever winter, the recent change in Agricultural practice has enhanced the development of a new wintering strategy of pink-footed geese, allowing a northward expansion of their winter range. Potentially, this will increase the crop damage conflict and may lead to further population growth ( Therkidsen et al 2000).

          Enclosure trials near Huron, CA in the San Joaquin Valley from 12 to 23 January 1999 , determine the efficacy of Flight Control TM (50% anthraquinone) and Mesurol R (75% methiocarb) in preventing horned lark damage to lettuce seedlings. Flight control TM (FC) and Mesurol R were evaluated as foliar sprays at application rates of 2.79 and 2.27 kg ha-1, respectively. Horned lark damage to lettuce seedlings treated with anthraquinone was greater (p=0.015) than for methiocarb R, 60 versus 20% , respectively, and seedlings in control plots were 100% destroyed. While this level of damage is probably unacceptable to lettuce growers, it should be remembered that the enclosure situation caused an artificially high bird pressure on the crop. Further studies in open fields under a more normal bird pressure are warranted ( York et al 2000).

 

29. Ozone injury

          Incidence and severity of visible foliar ozone injury on cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) and crown-bread (Verbesina Occidentalis Walt). Were determined .It is thus a matter of consideration that zone injury may harm vegetation harmed by browsing or even cutting. Ozone injury was greatest on the lower leaves for both species sampled with over 95% of the injured leaves occurring on the lower 50% of the plant. This is the first report of foliar ozone injury on these plant species in situ, in the Park, illustrating the great variability in symptom expression with time, and within and between populations ( Chappelka et al 2003).

 

30. Protected arrears and humans

          Knowledge of conflicts between people and protected areas is required for the design of sustainable conservation strategies for the management of most protected areas. The study identifies the causes of conflicts between local people and the Benous Wildlife Conservation Area (BWCA), which includes the Benous National Park, In northern Cameroon. Informal interviews and questionnaires were administered to 114 households in three communities, and to 17 park staff and 7 professional hunting guides from July –October 1997. Crop damage affected 86% of the surveyed household, with 31% of crop income lost on average, and with the damage varying significantly between communities. Elephants, baboons, patas monkeys. Warthogs and green parrots accounted for 97% of crop damage, with the staple food maize and  millet being most affected. Of  the respondents 27% experienced livestock depredation, with 18% of livestock income lost  on average. The civet cat was the main predator. The involvement of local people in illegal activities, their  lack of access to natural resources, and damage by wildlife were identified as principal causes of conflicts. Local people, park staff and professional hunting guides had diverse and differing perceptions about the causes of the conflicts and made various suggestions for reduction of wildlife damage including animal scaring and controlled shooting. We conclude that, under current wildlife policy, conflict between people and BWCA  (Bonous Wildlife Conservation area) is difficult to resolve. To reduce conflicts and promote sustainable conservation, we suggest co-management of wildlife involving all stakeholders, establishment of crop damage control teams, and promotion of tangible benefits to  local people. There may be a requirement for site –specificity in management strategies (Weladji et al 2003).

 

31. Low technology use to avoid damages

           It is suggested that an integrated, community-based, low technological approach will be the most sustainable solution to this conflict ( Osborn et al 2003).

          Blackbirds (lcteridae) annually damage US-8 million of ripening sunflower in the northern Great Plains. Baiting blackbirds with avicide-treated rice during spring migration might reduce the regional breeding populations. birds can be successfully baited with avicide-treated rice placed in corn stubble (Linz et al 2003).

            Plant debris accumulation is viewed as a key factor determining small mammal abundance and potential damage in low-till agricultural ((Stermer et al 2003) areas.

          The projected total value of crop yield losses due to wildlife damage for buffer zone villages located in Garhwal Himalaya in about Rs.5 38 620 (US 389). Besides food grain, horticultural crops i.e apple, also suffered. Major wildlife

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409a Compliance on Written Plan

409a Compliance on Written Plan

Edison and Upper Saddle River, NJ – February 21, 2008 – The Internal Revenue Service recently issued Notice 2007-78 that provides plan sponsors an extension to December 31, 2008 to maintain compliance with written documentation relative to deferred compensation plans. Written language of a deferred compensation plan must be in compliance with the regulation as of the end of this year. Plans, therefore, have extra time to be modified to comply in the written form, but must continue to be in compliance operationally with Section 409A. Where written plan provisions don’t comply with the regulation, plan sponsors will not violate 409A if:

• The plan operates in compliance with 409A;

• Is amended on or before the December 31, 2008 deadline; and

• Complies with 409A retroactive to January 1, 2007.

What does this mean? Although the IRS has extended the deadline for compliance relative to written plan documentation, the plan itself must already operate under the 409A regulations. Therefore, there is no relief in the manner in which deferrals are made. Some of the key deferral aspects that 409A stipulates and for which compliance should already be in effect are as follows:

• Timing of deferrals. Deferral elections must be made before December 31 for compensation that will be deferred during the following calendar year. For example, compensation that will be deferred during 2008 would have required that the election be made before December 31, 2007. The exception to this election rule includes any “performance-based compensation”.

• Deferral of “performance-based compensation”. Performance-based compensation is any compensation that is contingent on satisfying pre-established performance objectives that cover a period of at least 12 consecutive months. An election to defer performance-based compensation may be made up to 6 months before the end of the period; this does not include amounts that will be paid regardless of performance, or if the amount is based on performance objectives that are certain to be met at the time they were established. Performance objectives are considered “pre-established” if they are documented, in writing, no later than 90 days from the beginning of the period. For example, assuming a short-term incentive plan runs from January 1 through December 31, 2008, with awards based on performance, a participant may elect to defer this form of compensation until June 30, 2008, so long as the objectives were established, in writing, by March 31, 2008, and that the level of performance cannot be currently ascertained.

• Changes to deferral options. A participant may change the form or timing of deferral, so long as: a) the election will not be effective until 12 months after the election is made; b) payments affected by such change are delayed for at least 5 years from the original payment date; and c) elections relative to distributions as of a specified time or on a fixed schedule are made at least 12 months before the scheduled payment date. This provision excludes payments made as a result of the participant’s death or disability.

• Delay in Payments for “Key Employees”. 409A requires that payments under a deferred compensation plan must be delayed 6 months for key employees, as defined by IRC §416(i). A key employee is one that, at any time during the plan year, is:

* an officer having an annual compensation greater than 0,000;

* a 5% owner of the company; or

* a 1% owner of the company having an annual compensation of more than 0,000.

Given that the administrative changes are already underway relative to deferrals, the following questions relative to written documentation should be evaluated and action taken by December 31, 2008 to comply with the transition relief period:

• Are there any aspects of the plan that still conflict with 409A?

• Does the plan’s language comply with the requirements under the regulation?

• Are deferral elections made on a written vehicle that complies with the regulation?

• Are elections for performance-based compensation made appropriately? Are performance objectives pre-established and is the level of performance against these objectives substantially unknown at the time that deferrals can be elected?

• Are changes to deferral options properly documented within the plan?

• Does the plan document reflect the following:

* Is in the form of a written document;

* States a specific formula to calculate deferred compensation;

* Indicates the payment schedule or triggering events;

* Specifies a six-month payout delay for “key employees”;

* Provides specific language regarding acceleration of distributions; and

* Includes a clause regarding substantial risk of forfeiture on deferred amounts?

Compliance with 409A is a key aspect of successful administration of deferred compensation plans, and obviously, avoidance of scrutiny and penalties. A thorough examination of administration of your deferred compensation plans and implementation of changes to maintain compliance of written documentation is essential before the December 31, 2008 deadline. Outside professional advice can provide an objective look at your deferred compensation arrangements, and provide the necessary guidance to move towards full compliance with 409A.

__________

The written advice was not intended or written to be used, and cannot be used by any taxpayer, for the purpose of avoiding penalties that may be imposed on the taxpayer. The foregoing legend has been affixed pursuant to U.S. Treasury Regulations governing tax practice.

__________

Paul R. Dorf is the Managing Director of Compensation Resources, Inc. He is responsible for directing consulting services in all areas of executive compensation, short and long-term incentives, sales compensation, performance management systems, and pay-for-performance salary administration. He has over 40 years of Human Resource and Compensation experience and has held various executive positions with a number of large corporate organizations. He also has over 20 years of direct consulting experience as head of the Executive Compensation Consulting Practices for major accounting and actuarial/benefit consulting firms, including KPMG, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu (formerly Touche Ross), and Kwasha Lipton.

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“Already Taken” is the latest Trey Songz track to hit the charts. The song is taken from the album Step Up 3D which accompanies the movie (directed by Jon Chu) which is scheduled for release August 6, 2010.

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Being well known for releasing awesome songs, Trey Songz have done it again with the release of Already Taken. Although this is a fairly new release by Trey Songz, “Already Taken” is currently one of the top downloads at online music stores such as Amazon and iTunes. There is already a buzz on video tube sites such as YouTube and Already Taken is certain to rocket high into the charts around the globe. Make sure you don’t miss out on this latest offering from Trey Songz. This song’s reach is not just limited to mp3 downloads, the Already Taken ringtone is one of the hottest ringtone downloads around at the moment. If you’re into Trey Songz in a big way, you should definitely have some Trey Songz ringtones on your phone.

** Click Here To Instantly Download Trey Songz Ringtones To Your Phone **

True fans of Trey Songz should be downloading their music legally. Tracks cost as little as .99 from a site such as iTunes and even less from a subscription site. For information about subscription music sites and to get free trials, have a look at www.legalmusicguide.com. You can also get the Already Taken Ringtone sent directly to your phone. If you are looking for the latest and greatest ringtone, click here to Download Already Taken Ringtone straight to your phone now.

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KM Lists’ Email Blast Service Offers Affordable, Reliable Email Marketing and Campaign Management

KM Lists’ Email Blast Service Offers Affordable, Reliable Email Marketing and Campaign Management

As more businesses work to reduce direct marketing expenses while increasing qualified leads, one company has introduced a way to cut costs on businesses’ email marketing expenses while increasing the success of their campaigns.

KM Lists, a leading direct marketing company that provides targeted mailing & email lists, is now offering email broadcasting, a new email blast service for affordable email campaign management.

The newly-introduced Email Broadcasting offers businesses of all sizes and industries complete email campaign management for an affordable .10 per email delivery.  According to Pam Holden, Vice President of KM Lists, the service also alleviates the hassles of implementing and managing email marketing campaigns, while working to increase the response rate of future campaigns.

“To take advantage of Email Broadcasting, a business simply provides us with the desired email list and message.  From there, we implement the email marketing campaign and handle all of the back-end analysis,” explains Pam Holden, Vice President of KM Lists. “The email blast service includes email list management services, providing clients with a list of ‘suspect addresses’ so that lists can be updated for the next blast.”

According to Holden, one of the most exciting features of KM List’s Email Broadcasting is its ability to provide enhanced business intelligence.

“With advanced reporting capabilities, the Email Broadcasting system allows us to provide clients with data to help predict the results of future campaigns,” Holden reports.  “This insightful look into a campaign’s success rate offers many companies an unprecedented level of business intelligence for a significant return on investment.”

For more information about KM Lists’ email blast service, please call 1-800-635-5833 or visit http://www.kmlists.com.

Since 1987, KM Lists has been providing Superior Lists…with Personal Service at Affordable Prices! At KM Lists we work for you, handling your mailing list needs from beginning to end. Our vast wealth of knowledge enables us to present options to the client and discuss what is in their best interest by recommending a specific mailing, phone, and fax or email list that best meets client needs and explain why.

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These Exercises Increase Your Drawing Abilities

These Exercises Increase Your Drawing Abilities

Once you learn to draw, soon you recognize: a major part of this art is just craftsmanship and technique. Once you are proficient in the primary techniques, your creativeness can rely on these basics. This gives you furhter freedom for developing your drawing skills and imagination rather than concentrating on employing the basic techniques properly.
Therefore it’s a good thought to practice these primary drawing techniques regularly. Particularly as you are beginning to learn to draw, a lot of exercising these primary techniques will quicken your drawing success.

Learn Drawing Hatchings and Cross-Hatchings

Hatching implies to draw a lot parallel lines approximately. In difference to conventional shadings the lines are not allowed to touch eachother! Though there is still white space between the lines they form an area apparently shaded densely.

Cross-hatching takes it one step further. While you’re exercising cross-hatching you cover one set of hatchings with another set rectangular to the first one. Thus cross hatchings become much denser and solider than (single) hatchings.
Drawing hatchings calls for preciseness. So exercising hatchings is also a great opportunity to train your draftsmanship preciseness. First commence to fill up blank sheets of paper with hatchings and cross-hatchings not having a concrete subject in your eye.

Once you have acquired some technique, you ought to try first simple studies. Choose such sceneries that contain plenty of shadow. Try to reproduce this scene without using outlines. Instead trust completely on translating the darknesses and dark areas into hatchings. Let the hatchings’ direction follow the subjects you’re depicting. For drawing darker areas and darknesses place the lines of your hatching closer to each other or use cross hatching.

Learn to Draw Shadings

To draw shadings is more common than hatching. It’s more instinctual and requires less skills. When drawing shadings you merely fill up areas of your drawing with your pencil. By varying the softness of your pencil, the force you apply and the number of layers of shadings you create you manage the tones you produce.

Similar as when creating hatchings you draw shadings by drawing lots of lines. This time you draw them so dense to each other they overlap and blend completely. Shadings made out of lines still have a direction (though not as strong as in hatchings). So pay attention to align your shadings’ direction with the forms of the objects you are drawing. To make the shading more dense you have to apply the same techniques as when creating cross hatching.

A different way for drawing shadings involves drawing countless very little circles densely together so they merge and blend. Shadings made this way are extremely smooth and lack a visible direction. The advantage: you won’t have to keep an eye on the shading’s visible direction.

Ideally you begin exercising shadings instantly. Choose a few sheets of paper, sketch a few bare forms like rectangles and begin to fill them with shadings. Try to make them as smooth as imaginable and apply all the different techniques explicated before.

Again when you have achieved decent levels of expertise, try to begin using the techniques learned on real-world sceneries.

Use Various viewpoints and perspective types

Besides creating shadings and hatchings the most crucial technique you need to know when commencing to learn drawing, is a sound apprehension of perspective.

There are a few rules that can assist you in constructing perspectively correct drafts. But first it’s necessary you practice your eye to acknowledge common structures.

Choose easy subjects largely containing of unbent lines and not too much arcs. And then draw those scenes by drawing only the silhouette. This way you are able to focus on understanding dimensions and perspective. But don’t stay here, reiterate this practice by drawing the same scenery again and again from different viewpoints.

You’ll see with each repetition you’ll apprehend the subject better and your skills to understand and depict the proportions of any subject will increase greatly.

And What comes Next?

This trio of practices are the most important while studying to draw. There are more common skills and techniques you could and should train. You could learn your drawing expertise by yourself – just go out and draw real subjects. Start with simple ones and step-up the degree of difficultness while you advance. Additionally you can learn drawing employing exercises designed and proved to warrant ideal advancements for your drawing abilities.

This is the 4rd part of the 6 part series about drawing and how to learn drawing. Visit the next part to learn how to draw online. Here you can also get a free ebook on learning to draw.

Selling a House Quickly Involves the Use of Open Market Values

Selling a House Quickly Involves the Use of Open Market Values

A good thing to see about selling a house quickly deals with how much money you can get off of your sale. You may be able to end up getting more in a quick sale than with a standard sale. The value that is going to be determined for your home will be something that you should be looking into though. This value is going to be figured out through the use of the open market value of your property.

The open market value relates to what your home would be worth in a standard type of transaction. It will help for you to see just how this can work in your deal.

You will be able to get a value set up during your consultation. This is a value that will relate to what you will be getting when you sell your home. It will be exactly what you are going to be getting if you agree to get into a quick house sale.

A deduction will have to be made at this point in the sale. This deduction is going to be one that comes off of the value of your home. This is a reduction that will be used to get the company to be able to continue to stay in business. It will have to sell your home at full price to someone to get a profit. It will still be used to make sure that you avoid any of the fees that would come with this type of sale.

The open market value will be figured out at this point in the sale. The open market value refers to how much money you will be getting when you get into a traditional type of sale. It will be used for your quick sale purposes as well.

This open market value for selling a house quickly relates to how much money your property would be worth if it were on sale on the general property market. This is a value that may end up being higher or lower than what the current value of your home is. Either way it will be something that is going to look about three to six months ahead of time for your value. This is a good time to use for figuring out what you can get on your home in the future. It may be of a good benefit to you.

The amount of money that your open market value will be reduced by will be slight. You will end up getting seventy to seventy five percent of the open market value on your property.

It does help to see in this case that the money that you would be getting off of selling a house quickly can still be greater than what you’d get in a traditional home sale. Even though you will be dealing with the same base open market value in either transaction you could still earn more in a quick sale. This comes from the lack of having to deal with legal fees, listing fees and other annoying charges that a typical estate agent would put you through.

Selling a house quick can work with the open market value of your property. This will be used to get you to get the same amount of money on your property as what you could be getting if you used a traditional type of property sale. You may be able to get a greater deal of money in a quick sale than with some other sale that involves taxes and other charges onto the value of your home.

Steven Martin is a FSA interim authorised provider of sell and rent back and also provides Quick property sale. He works at http://www.quickpurchase.co.uk

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